Made with Xara Website by Susan Smily  Archaic Greek (800-479 B.C.) Notes by Dr. Honora M. Finkelstein Saw themselves as united through a common mythic ancestor, Hellen,  who fathered three sons, the founders of the Ionians, the Aeolians, and the Dorians. Women were generally subservient to men, with no legal or economic status.  Priestesses and the occasional literary figure were exceptions. Women in Sparta were also an exception, being given education and being allowed to own land and manage their own property, relatively equally with men. Arts Sculpture was rooted in religious practices and beliefs. Kouros and kore were free-standing statues of youths and maidens that delighted in the splendor of the human body. Architecture Developed the temple of post-beam-triangle construction. Literature and Education Homer: Wrote The Iliad and The Odyssey. Both his language and his characterizations made their way into the education of young people for models of style and of behavior. Music, Science, and Mathematics Lyric poetry (sung to the music of a lyre) Government, Law,  and Medicine Farming communities evolved into city states (poleis). Wealthy warriors developed oligarchies, or government by the few. New military tactics recruited foot soldiers (hoplites) for battle. Freeborn males who could claim the right to enter politics voiced opinions in a widening democratic process. Jury process developed. Solon brought democracy to Athens in 590 B.C. Philosophy/Religion Believed in the 9 muses of creativity, who inspired epic poetry, history, erotic poetry and mime, lyric poetry and music, tragedy, sacred hymn, dance and song, comedy, and astronomy. Believed in the Olympian deities: Zeus, Hera, Poseidon, Hestia, Hades, Apollo, Artemis, Athena, Hermes, Aphrodite, Haephastos, Ares. Also believed in the "chthonian" earth deities: Demeter, Persephone, and Dionysus, associated with seasonal cycles. Natural philosophy developed, combining philosophy and science: Thales: Everything is based on water. Pythagoras: Everything is based on numbers. Heraclitus: Everything is in constant change; developed a form of dialectical reasoning.