Made with Xara Website by Susan Smily  Byzantine (476-1453) Notes by Dr. Honora M. Finkelstein Arts Byzantine mosaics developed a new technique using pieces of colored glass; these were usually set in walls. The Church at San Vitale is the home to a pari of impressive mosaics of Emperor Justinian and his courtiers and of his empress, Theodora, and her retinue. The Greek cross with equal arms came into use. Images of a bearded Christ as a stern judge came into use, replacing the images of the beardless "Good Shepherd." Architecture Byzantine emperors in Constantinople turned their city into a glorious center that easily outshone Rome. The most important monastic complex is that at Mt. Athos. The Byzantine style drew from Greek, Roman, and oriental sources, with rich ornamentation and riotous color. The Byzantines invented  pendentives, supports  in the shape of inverted triangles—that allowed a dome to be suspended over a square base; the church of Hagia Sophia is an excellent example of this structure. Literature and Education Anna Comnena (1083-1153) wrote The Alexiad, a scholarly study of the reign of her father, Emperor Alexius I Comninus, which is an excellent source of history for the First Crusade. Government, Law,  and Medicine Emperor Justinian codified Roman law in the sixth century in the Justinian Code. Philosophy/Religion The church was divided, with the Pope as the head of the Church of Rome, and the Patriarch of Constantinople as the head of the Eastern Orthodox Church