Made with Xara Website by Susan Smily Egyptian (6000-525 B.C.)  Notes by Dr. Honora M. Finkelstein Developed along the Nile River. Women could own property; four times a woman ruled as Pharaoh, most notably Hatshepsut, who proclaimed herself "male." Arts Sculpture in the round with a set of rules for poses and gestures Artistic canon established for painting two-dimensional works, with exact proportions determined through use of a grid; faces almost always in profile Amarna Revolution emphasized naturalism and domesticity Architecture Step pyramids and true pyramids The Great Pyramid and the Giza complex Funerary monuments Columns with decorated capitals Literature and Education Hieroglyphic writing on stone, pottery, and papyrus Development of many literary genres, such as prophecies, hymns, and prose narratives. Music, Science, and Mathematics Percussion and wind instruments Originated a solar calendar model of 12 months and 30 days, with five days of holiday at the end. Government, Law,  and Medicine Renowned throughout the Near East for use of drugs and medical knowledge. Rule was by a theocracy, with each pharaoh identifying with one of the gods. Philosophy/Religion Belief in a large pantheon of gods. Gods often depicted with animal heads. Emphasis on life after death, with elaborate preparations for funerary arrangements such as mummification as a support to the soul in the afterlife. Belief in three forms of the soul. Under Pharaoh Akhenaten (Amenhotep IV), a foretaste of monotheism, with worship of Aten, the solar disk