Made with Xara Website by Susan Smily Hebrew/Jewish (began ca. 2000 B.C.) Notes by Dr. Honora M. Finkelstein Arts Very little representative art exists because of the injunction of the 2nd commandment against making "graven images."   The Greek practice of making mosaics was adopted by the Jews for decorative art. Architecture The Temple of Jerusalem, first completed under King Solomon in 957 B.C. but destroyed by the Babylonians in 587-586 B.C. The Second Temple, also called Herod's Temple, built in A.D. 26 and destroyed by the Romans in A.D. 70.  One wall that remains standing is referred to as "The Wailing Wall." Literature and Education The Hebrew Bible, also known as the Old Testament. The first five books are referred to as the Torah. Commentaries on the Bible are collected in the Talmud. The Dead Sea Scrolls, found at Qumran in 1947, offer insights about a group of Jews known as the Essenes. Music, Science, and Mathematics From early times, the Jews had a tradition of singing hymns during religious services. Government, Law,  and Medicine The first covenant of the Hebrews with their god came about under the patriarch Abraham; it required that all Hebrew males undergo circumcision. The law of Moses, codified as The 10 Commandments. In addition, there are 613 other commandments, devised to keep the mind of a Jew constantly on God. Philosophy/Religion The covenant with YHWH, the god of the Hebrew people, and the Hebrews' agreement to have no other gods, makes this a monotheistic religion.   Celebration of the Sabbath (the day of rest at the end of the week). Celebration of several other religious holidays, such as Passover, Sukkoth, Channukah, Rosh Hoshanna, and Yom Kippur.