Made with Xara Website by Susan Smily Hellenic Greek (479-323 B.C.) Notes by Dr. Honora M. Finkelstein Development of the concept of Classicism, emphasizing simplicity, balance, and restraint, which found expression in all the arts. Arts Classical Greek sculpture further developed the idealized form for the physical body. Architecture Pericles launched a public works program. The Doric temple from the Archaic Age found its full development in the Ionic architectural order. Ictinus and Callicrates perfected the eastern-style Doric temple in the Parthenon. Literature and Education Tragedy and other forms of theater developed from the Dionysia. Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides were active writers of tragedies. Aristophanes was the greatest writer of comedy. Herodotus and Thucydides wrote histories. Aristotle analyzed the writing of both tragedy and comedy in his Poetics. Humanistic learning became a guide for refined living and the model for the educational system of Hellenistic civilization, Rome, and Western European culture. Music, Science, and Mathematics Music became a form of expression subject to rules, styles, and rational analysis. Music followed a diatonic system, using a scale of eight notes. Greek composers devised a series of scales, or modes, which they believed produced different emotions in the hearers. Strings, winds, and percussion instruments were common. Government, Law,  and Medicine An increasingly urban lifestyle. Despite their common background, the Greek city states never joined together as a unified whole. The final portion of this period was under the rule of Alexander the Great of Macedon. Aristotle classified and compared over 150 state constitutions in his Politics. Democracy contributed the spirit of skepticism. Philosophy/Religion Public worship was assimilated into civic festivals, such as the Dionysia. Believed in balance and moderation; extremes in human nature were represented by the  opposition of Apollo and Dionysus. The pre-Socratic philosophers: Parmenides believed the world was a single, unchanging, unmoving object, whose order could be known through reason. Empedocles claimed that everything was based on the four elements of earth, air, water, and fire. Democritus believed everything was composed of atoms. Anaxagoras believed that combinations of similar small particles were controlled by a nonphysical agency he called nous (reason or mind). Protagoras, a Sophist, proclaimed, "Man is the measure of all things." Socrates believed that the soul or psyche was immortal. "Virtue is knowledge," but the knowledge had to be won through dialectic. Plato recorded the teachings of Socrates and built on them, to formulate idealism, which emphasizes spiritual values and makes ideas, rather than matter, the basis of everything that exists. Aristotle was considered the most comprehensive mind of the ancient world. In his Nicomachean Ethics he recommended achieving happiness through striking a mean, or a balance, between extremes of behavior.