Made with Xara Website by Susan Smily High Middle Ages (1000-1300) Notes by Dr. Honora M. Finkelstein Arts Wall paintings, statues, and stained glass windows portrayed saints and biblical heroes, as well as stories of heroes and astrological symbols. Churches in the Gothic period might contain glorious stained glass rose windows, like that at Notre Dame, Paris. Architecture About 1000, the Romanesque style of church developed, with a floor plan matching that of the cruciform pattern,  but about 150 years later, with influence of those returning from the Crusades, the Gothic style, with pointed arches and flying buttresses that allowed the architecture to go higher and let in more light, began to develop, and it dominated the church building thereafter until the Renaissance period. Among those churches that have a beautiful exoskeleton, the loveliest is probably Amiens Cathedral. Literature and Education Hildegard of Bingen (1098-1179) wrote on a variety of subjects. Mechthild of Magdeburg (1207-1282) wrote The Flowing Light of the Godhead about her spiritual journey. Meister Eckhart (1260-1328) wrote tracts and sermons to help guide people to orthodoxy in religion. Cathedral schools developed, and scholasticism attempted to bring the philosophy of Aristotle into harmony with Christian faith. Peter Abelard and William of Champeaux disputed the problem of universals. After 1100 several universities were founded. Thomas Aquinas attempted to solve the intellectual controversies of the time with his via media, which gave Aristotle a central role in his theology while honoring traditional Christian beliefs. The chanson de geste was a song or poem of noble deeds. Several literary figures wrote courtly romances or lays about the court of the mythical King Arthur, including Chretien de Troyes (1148-1190), Thomas Malory (1485), and Marie de France (1170). Dante Alighieri (1265-1321) wrote his Divine Comedy about a trip to Hell, Purgatory, and Heaven, a work considered the crown of medieval Christian literature. Music, Science, and Mathematics Minstrels and troubadours wrote love songs and poems. Polyphonic music developed for churches during this period, with two-voiced and then multi-voiced works being developed. The lute and the bagpipe, banned by the churches, made their way into secular music. Guido of Arezzo (995-1050) modernized musical notation by his invention of the music staff; he also named the tones by the syllable ut, re, mi, fa, sol, and la, thus simplifying the teaching of music. Robert Grosseteste (1175-1253) had developed a scientific method for investigating natural phenomena and testing them with mathematics. Roger Bacon (1220-1292) used the experimental method to demonstrate his studies in optics, solar eclipses, and rainbows and his work in math, physics, and philosophy. Government, Law,  and Medicine Over the generations, feudalism became a complex web of agreements, obligations, and rituals.  Written agreements were made between a feudal lord and his vassals. The chivalric code created an ideal of the warrior knight with Christian values of bravery, strength, and honesty. The church initiated the Peace of God, a call for an end to fighting at specified times. The courtly love movement developed to improve the status of women and the manners of knights at court. The church instituted the Inquisition to control any heretical beliefs that might arise in the general population. Philosophy/Religion The church established seven sacraments ("outward and spiritual signs of inward and spiritual grace") at the Fourth Lateran Council of 1215, under Pope Innocent III, including baptism, confirmation, the Eucharist, penance, marriage, last rites, and ordination to the priesthood.