Made with Xara Website by Susan Smily Late Middle Ages (1300-1500) Notes by Dr. Honora M. Finkelstein Arts Because of the depopulation of Europe by the plague, famine, and war, the Danse Macabre, or Dance of Death became of major theme in art and literature. Giovanni Pisano (1245-1314) designed  marble pulpit for the cathedral at Pisa using classical themes derived from Roman art as later Renaissance artists would also do. Giotto (1276-1337) began depicting human figures in new ways that appeared three-dimensional (though without mathematical perspective) and that would help  revolutionize art. The Burgundian court played a role in producing one of the outstanding illuminated manuscripts or the medieval period, the Tres Riches Heures du Duc de Berry painted by the three Limbourg brothers. The print, a new artistic medium, used woodcuts, engravings, and drypoint. Jan van Eyck (1370-1441) founded the Flemish school of art which sought reality through an accumulation of precise and symbolic details. Architecture Late Gothic architecture demonstrated a tendency called the Flamboyant style, so named for its flamelike effects. In England, the Late Gothic was called Perpendicular because of its dramatic emphasis on verticality. Some churches used a variation of rib vaulting called fan vaulting, in which stone ribs arch out from a single point to form a fan pattern. The campaniles, or bell towers, of the churches of Sienna and Florence became objects of competition. The painter Giotto designed the Florentine bell tower in a way that anticipated later Renaissance ideals. Literature and Education Thomas a Kempis (1380-1471) reflected asceticism of the new devotion with his Imitation of Christ. John Wycliffe (1320-1384) introduced the first complete English-language Bible. Francesco Petrach (1304-1374) wrote lyrics and sonnets in his collection called Canzoniere; he also touched a religious theme in Secretum. Giovanni Boccaccio (1313-1375) wrote The Decameron, a collection of stories by those who have left an urban center to avoid the plague. William Langland (1332-1400) wrote a moral allegory, The Vision of Piers Plowman, alling for a return to Christian virtues. Geoffrey Chaucer (1340-1400) wrote Canterbury Tales, which showed medieval society at its best and worst. Christine de Pizan (1364-1430) wrote The Book of the City of Ladies  to try to raise the status of women and give them dignity. Music, Science, and Mathematics William of Ockham's ideas broadened the path to modern science. Nicholas Oresme (1330-1382) answered Aristotle's objections to the idea that the earth moved. Government, Law,  and Medicine The Inquisition reached its cruelest point in this period, especially in Italy and Spain. Philosophy/Religion Lay piety developed with the devotio moderna, an ascetic reaction to the depopulation of the masses. Flagellants went about beating themselves as an act of piety. The English reform movement came into being from the teachings of John Wycliffe, who urged the abolition of ecclesiastical property, subservience of the church to the state, and the denial of papal authority. Duns Scotus (1265-1308) urged that theology and science should be independent fields of inquiry. William of Ockham (1300-1349) with his razor of logic, separated natural philosophy from theology.