Mesopotamian  Cultures of Sumer, Akkadia, and Babylonia (3000-1600 B.C.) Notes by Dr. Honora M. Finkelstein Developed in the Tigris-Euphrates River Valley. Sumerian culture held women in high esteem, but this attitude changed in later cultures, where men became dominant. Arts Seals, pottery, jewelry, vases, reliefs, and statues in clay, stones, gems, gold, silver, leather, and ivory Architecture Post-and- lintel construction houses Ziggurats (terraced brick and mud-brick pyramids) used as temples and centers of worship Literature and Education Cuneiform writing system allowed for the recording of records and literature, such as the poems about Inanna and The Epic of Gilgamesh. Creation myths, etc., influenced other cultures. Music, Science, and Mathematics Wind and string instruments used to accompany singers A math system based on 60, with a 60-minute hour and the 360-degree circle. Developed a lunar calendar to assist with planting. Government, Law,  and Medicine Code of Hammurabi Philosophy/Religion Polytheistic, anthropomorphic, and pantheistic Belief in the influence of the constellations and planets, with which the "gods" were associated. (For example, Inanna/Ishtar is the planet Venus.) Rituals and ceremonies associated with seasonal change, such as the death and rebirth of Dumuzi/Tammuz. Development of an elaborate priesthood. Made with Xara Website by Susan Smily