Made with Xara Website by Susan Smily Roman  (753 B.C.-A.D. 248)  Notes by Dr. Honora M. Finkelstein Arts Inspired by the Greek model, Rome emphasized grandeur in all things. Sculpture was designed in service to the state: the first phase was  modeled on death masks, to memorialize those who were deceased; the second phase focused on capturing the subject realistically; the third phase, in the Augustinian  period, reverted to the idealism of earlier times. Murals were the most popular type of painting in Rome. Roman mosaics were generally created with bits of colored stone and set into floors; themes were still lifes, myths, landscapes, and religious scenes. Architecture Roman engineers perfected the use of the rounded arch in creating ceilings or vaults from series of contiguous arches, allowing for the building of rounded ceilings. Across the entire ancient world, the Romans built forums, temples, amphitheaters, laid roads, built aqueducts, viaducts, pools, columns, walls, and generally left their mark as engineers. Literature and Education First period (250-31 B.C): Terence and Plautus wrote comedies; Lucretius and Catullus wrote poetry; Cicero wrote speeches and created a philosophical vocabulary for the Latin language. Second period, Golden Age (31 B.C.-A.D. 14): Vergil wrote The Aeneid; Horace created the genre of satire; Ovid wrote The Art of Love and The Metamorphosis. Third period, Silver Age (A.D. 14-200): Seneca wrote tragedies; Juvenal wrote biting satires; Tacitus wrote histories. The Roman education system was ultimately adopted all across Europe in its trivium (grammar, logic, and rhetoric) and quadrivium (arithmetic, geometry, music, and astronomy), which together became the seven liberal arts. Music, Science, and Mathematics Rome adopted Greek music and instruments, using percussion, wind, and stringed instruments, as well as the hydraulic organ. A new form of musical theater was the pantomime, which involved theatrics, music, and dance. Government, Law,  and Medicine Went through stages of monarchy, republic, and empire as it gradually conquered the then-known world. The idea of natural law was born from Roman Stoicism. Rome's first codification of the law was in 450 B.C. with the Twelve Tables. Civil law developed through the office of the praetor, whose decisions became a codified body over time. In the late Republic, law was enhanced by the advice of legal experts, jurisconsults or jurisprudentes. Philosophy/Religion Modeled its pantheon on that of Greece, but changed the names of the gods to Jupiter, Juno, Neptune, Vesta, Pluto, Apollo, Diana, Minerva, Venus, Mercury, Vulcan, and  Mars. Also adopted the mystery cults of the mother goddesses Cybele and Isis. Roman soldiers adopted the worship of Mithras, a son of the sun, whose worship included observing the seventh day as Sunday, December 25 as the birthday of the god, and experiencing a baptism, probably in the blood of a bull. As it conquered other cultures, Rome systematically syncretized other religions in its efforts to control all thought under one spiritual umbrella. Philosophers of Stoicism included Seneca, Epictetus, and the emperor Marcus Aurelius. Plotinus developed Neo-Platonism to bridge the dualism of Plato with mystical insight.