Looking at Art and Artists Notes by Dr. Honora M. Finkelstein   The following artists were particularly prolific and influential during the Italian Renaissance and the Mannerist period that followed it. Many comments and observations in this discussion are taken from Art for Dummies, by Thomas Hoving, Former Director, Metropolitan Museum of Art. Discussion is followed by page numbers in Matthews and Platt, The Western Humanities, Vol. II, where you can find examples of the works of each artist. Early Renaissance (1420-1490) Made with Xara Website by Susan Smily Filippo Brunelleschi (architect) Masaccio  (painter) Donatello  (sculptor) Lorenzo Ghiberti (sculptor) Piero della Francesca  (painter) Sandro Botticelli (painter) Fra Angelico (painter) Rediscovered linear perspective, offering an illusion of three-dimensional space; he organized the picture’s space around the center point, or vanishing point, then designed a grid for sizing and placing objects in precise relationship to each other with respect to that point. Painter, sculptor, architect, and engineer, his crowning achievement was finishing the dome of the Cathedral of Florence. (300-301) His name means "clumsy Tom," but the soubriquet seems to have applied to his casual manner of dress rather than to his art works. Two icons of art history in your textbook by Masaccio are "The Holy Trinity," and "The Tribute Money"; the latter is startlingly real because of his breakthrough in the way the painted surface becomes a continuation of the actual world by using the same laws of space, light, and atmosphere. "The Holy Trinity" is a refinement of one- point perspective. (306-307) In your text, see his "Feast of Herod," the very adolescent "David" (Florence), the bronze equestrian statue "Gattamelata" (Padua), or the "Honeyed Cat," who was a wily, many-lived Venetian general-of-fortune or Condottiere, named Erasmo da Narmi. Also, Donatello was famous for a bronze Medieval-in-spirit "Virgin and Child" in the Cathedral of Padua. (302, 304) Designed two sets of gates for the Florentine Baptistery; the first set of gates show Ghiberti’s Gothic heritage, while the golden gates are sometimes considered the finest sculptural achievements of the early Renaissance because they combine Classical antiquity, humanism, and perspective. (305) "The Flagellation of Christ" uses perspective in a highly unusual way, with a dreamlike interior, where Jesus (looking like a Greek statue) is being beaten by two thugs dressed as Greek soldiers, juxtaposed to a realistic exterior, where three men stand chatting, seemingly oblivious to what is going on within.(309) His "Primavera" and "Birth of Venus" both focus on the goddess Venus as a symbol of newly regenerated love. Though these are gorgeously conceived paintings, their general lack of perspective make them seem a bit flat rather than three-dimensional. (297, 310) His "Annunciation" uses the new Renaissance style in its execution (sizing and placement of figures in a linear perspective, with the vanishing point in the window of the cell) while suggesting a sense of "history" by depicting the enclosed garden and cell of a Gothic Medieval monastery with the pointed arches and tiny barred window.(288, 308) High Renaissance (1490-1527) (This period ended with the sacking of Rome by the Hapsburg armies during the Hapsburg/Valois War.) Donato Bramante (architect) Andrea Palladio (architect) Leonardo da Vinci (painter) Michelangelo Buonarotti (sculptor, painter, architect) (in his later period, he also evidenced aspects of Mannerism) Titian (painter) Raphael Sanzio (painter) Albrecht Dürer (painter) (most important painter of the Northern Renaissance) His Tempietto ("The Little Temple") in San Pietro in Montorio, Rome, is a lovely example of Renaissance rationality, order, and purity. According to Hoving, "It’s like a large doll’s house; its diminutive Doric columns surround it like a devout embrace and a perky dome." I see a similarity between this little "temple" and the Jefferson Memorial in Washington, D.C. (339). Was an enormously influential architect who used for his models ancient Roman architecture, but transformed the energy of these ancient originals into buildings in harmony both with the past and the future. (341) Christopher Wren’s St. Paul’s Cathedral in London (see p. 394) and Thomas Jefferson’s Monticello, State Capitol of Virginia, and University of Virginia (see p. 460- 461) are all Palladio-inspired buildings. Widely considered to have been one of the greatest thinkers of all time, Leonardo was truly a Renaissance or "universal" man. As an artist, he epitomized the Renaissance style. His "Mona Lisa" (in the Louvre, Paris), "Woman with an Ermine" (in Krakow, Poland—Hoving suggests that the ermine with the bared teeth suggests viciousness, and that the veil on the woman’s head was a 16th century symbol traditionally associated with Nero’s wife, Poppea, so perhaps this presentation was intended to suggest an inner evil), "Annunciation" (in the Uffizi Gallery in Florence), and "The Last Supper" (in Milan) are paintings that can be viewed today. The last of these has just undergone a decade of restoration, but its paint began flaking off within Leonardo’s lifetime, and it has not been repainted. (314, 324, 326) Listed by Hoving as one of the ten all-time most interesting artists, Michelangelo was a master of every medium he attempted. Hoving says his "David" captures the Renaissance importance of mankind, anatomy, movement, religious emotion, the Classical ideal, the monumental, and the unforgettable. His paintings in the Sistine Chapel perfected three-dimensionality of form on flat (and curved) surfaces in a way that had not been accomplished by anyone before him. In addition to embodying the Renaissance style at its best, he is credited with giving birth to the style called Mannerism that superceded it; note the tortured forms of some of his figures in "The Last Judgment." And in his architectural design, his Dome of St. Peter’s shows a perfection of Classical form. Compare also the two sculptures of the "Pieta," the first a Renaissance rendering, and the second a Mannerist production. (316, 328-331, 335, 336, 338, 340) According to Hoving, Titian is the least significant of the Renaissance greats because his glowing color and apparent disinterest in "proper" anatomy are at odds with the trends of the times. Strictly speaking, he was more Romantic than Renaissance, with "sweet images, devout religious scenes, earthy nudes, steamy mythological images, and works in which there’s a sub- text of horror." (319, 334) Was known in the 19th century as "the divine," but he somewhat fell into popular disfavor in the 1920s when the harsh and crude in art became popular, and he was designated as "sweet." His "School of Athens" is a dynamic fresco that assimilates the ideas of his age: the use of Classical architecture, the balance of Plato and Aristotle, the central vanishing point, the hand gestures emphasizing the differences in their philosophies, and the division of the other figures into poetic thinkers (under Apollo) and scientists (under Athena). The Apollo figure is a borrowing from Michelangelo’s "The Dying Slave, " and Michelangelo himself sits alone, leaning on a table and lost in his own thoughts. (Michelangelo is said not to have liked Raphael very much.) The "Sistine Madonna" is marked by balanced composition; the Virgin and child in the center are bracketed by two curtains, two figures, and two cherubs. Composed in a pyramid shape popularized by Leonardo Da Vinci, the Virgin’s head is the apex. (322, 332-333) The greatest artist of the Northern Renaissance. Hoving calls Dürer one of the most interesting artists of all time. He was tremendously popular with the common man (and presumably woman) because of his ability to communicate clear storytelling through art. His "Knight, Death and the Devil" is particularly frightening. Often called "arrogant," Dürer’s most shocking painting is his self-portrait, in which he presents himself as Jesus Christ, frontally, in rich robes, to suggest the artist’s creativity comes directly from God. (344, 351) Parmigianino (architect) Tintoretto (painter) El Greco (painter) This painter’s real name was Girolamo Francesco Maria Mazzola, but he was known as "the little guy from Parma." Parmigianino liked to take ideal forms and exaggerate them, elongating limbs and torsos and especially necks. "Madonna with the Long Neck" distorts the chaste subject in a way that is both divine and sensuous. (335) Hoving says Tintoretto created "sublime religious works and riveting portraits that combine an intense scrutiny of mankind with only an occasional exaggerated touch." If you compare Leonardo’s Classical Renaissance "Last Supper" with Tintoretto’s, you may note that the first appeals to the viewer’s reason, while the second appeals to the emotions.(367) His real name was Domenikos Theotokopoulos, and he was born in Crete. He went to Spain around 1577; his common soubriquet actually means "The Greek." A well-trained artist with a Classical education (he could read and write both Latin and Greek), El Greco’s works are unmistakable and like no one else’s; his unique style included elongated figures, acid colors, and swirls of atmospheric effects, and were often emotionally wrenching in their execution. (364- 365) Mannerism (1520-1625)