The Counter-Reformation Notes by Dr. Honora M. Finkelstein   The Counter-Reformation came from within the Roman Catholic Church itself, as a response to the justifiable criticism of the Protestant reformers. Its three primary actions were as follows: It reformed the Papacy and called for a renewal of the vows of celibacy within the clergy. It developed new monastic orders, most notably the Jesuit order (the Society of Jesus) by St. Ignatius Loyola. It called the Council of Trent, which met three times between 1545 and 1563 to reaffirm the validity of all the things the Protestants had removed from their worship but with the intention of reforming them all. Mannerism in art was an ultimate result of the Counter-Reformation. Made with Xara Website by Susan Smily