The Scientific Revolution Notes by Dr. Honora M. Finkelstein Europe also saw a scientific revolution during this time frame. While the magical and the practical continued to exist side by side, this was a great period of discovery in astronomy and physics. In 1542 Copernicus had published his recognition that the Earth, and all the other planets of the solar system, revolved around the sun. This shifted the understanding of many thinkers into a new phase of understanding. However, both Catholics and Protestants had rejected this new view of reality at the time. But as astronomers such as Tycho Brahe (1546-1601) and Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) developed better astronomical paraphernalia and began tracking the motion of the planets to ultimately prove the heliocentric view of the solar system, Protestantism slowly came round to the new way of thinking. (The Roman Catholic Church continued to reject the new astronomy until 1822.) Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) also made accurate astronomical calculations that proved the earth moves around the sun, and did major work in physics in the realm of terrestrial mechanics, particularly with the action of projectiles. He was the first scientist to use a clock to measure time in his experiments. Isaac Newton (1642-1727) discovered the force of gravity, and with his explanation of how gravity holds planets in their orbits, he finished formulating the model of the universe that Copernicus had begun. Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564) did painstaking observations on the operation of the heart that eventually allowed William Harvey (1578-1657) to produce the correct view of the circulation of the hearth. And with the aid of a microscope, Marcello Malpighi (1628-1694) gave science an understanding of the capillaries, which connected veins and arteries. Robert Boyle (1627-1691) laid the groundwork for modern chemistry with experiments on the behavior of gases. Made with Xara Website by Susan Smily