Time Line of the Baroque Age Notes by Dr. Honora M. Finkelstein (Notes for this section are synthesized from Roy T. Matthews and F. Dewitt Platt, The Western Humanities, 5th Edition, Vol. II.) · Marked by grandeur, opulence, and expanded horizons in thought and execution of works. · Offered both the church and secular rulers an opportunity to enhance their power by dazzling the common people. · Was so-called from barroco, meaning "an irregular pearl." · Generated dynamic, open-ended works that threaten to explode beyond their boundaries. The three styles of Baroque works included the following: The Florid Baroque—this style was grand and rich, and utilized by the Catholic Church to reestablish and exhibit its power. The Classical Baroque—marked by a simpler, more dignified, though still elaborate style; this was the approach to art and architecture of the French court. The Restrained Baroque—an even simpler style, more humanistic and democratic in focus. Historically, Europe was plagued by religious warfare in the first half century of the 1600s. The second half century involved territorial expansion and a race among nation states for overseas colonies. Politically, this was also the period of the rise of great military states; by 1715, there were five vying for absolutist power in Europe: England, France, Austria, Prussia, and Russia, meaning that their rulers wanted complete control of their own territories, rather than sharing it with the church or noble. England in the Baroque Age Elizabeth I (last of the Tudor dynasty)—died in 1603 James I (established the Stuart dynasty)—ruled 1603-1625 Charles I—ruled 1625-1649 Oliver Cromwell—established a Puritan Commonwealth that ruled 1649-1660 Charles II—1660-1685 James II—1685-1689 (was effective deposed by the Glorious Revolution in 1688) William of Orange (from the Netherlands) and Mary II (Stuart)—1689-1702 Anne—1702-1714 By 1714, England had become the model for a state ruled by a limited monarchy under written laws. France in the Baroque Age Henry IV—1st king of the Bourbon dynasty, was assassinated in 1610. Louis XIII became king. o France was really ruled in this period by Cardinal Richelieu (from 1624-1642), who effectively wrested power from the nobles. He was a pragmatic (read Machivellian) statesman, and was succeeded by the person he had trained, Cardinal Mazarin (who ruled from 1642 to 1661), who acted as regent for the young Louis XIV. o This was the beginning of a golden age for France, which dominated Europe for the next century, especially culturally and politically. French became the diplomatic language of Europe. o To preserve the purity of the French language and to honor living authors, Richelieu founded the French Academy in 1635. Mazarin founded the Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in 1648 to recognize the country’s artists. Louis XIV, on the death of Mazarin in 1661, was 23. He glorified himself as the Sun King and declared "L’Etat c’est moi"—"I am the state." o He set himself up as head of the French bureaucracy, supported mercantilism and the import-export trade, and cleared France of the French Huguenots. He also moved the seat of government to Versailles. By 1715, France had become a model for an absolutist state in Europe Made with Xara Website by Susan Smily